Sumatran tiger, or the Latin language called Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of five subspisies tiger (Panthera tigris) in the world that still survive. Endangered species including the Sumatran tiger is also the only sub-spisies tigers that still belongs to Indonesia after the two brothers Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) and the Javan Tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) declared extinct.
Animals of the phylum Chordata can only be found on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Population living in the wild is estimated 400-500 birds. The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is increasingly rare and are categorized as endangered species.
Tigers are believed to be descendants of the ancient predators known as Miacids. Miacids alive at the end of the Cretaceous period about 70-65 million years ago during the age of dinosaurs in West Asia (Andrew Kitchener, "The Natural History of Wild Cats"). The tiger then evolved in eastern Asia in China and Siberia before berpecah two, one moving towards the forest of Central Asia in the west and southwest into the Caspian tiger. Some were moved from Central Asia to the western mountainous region, and beyond into south east Asia and the islands of Indonesia, partly to keep moving to the west as far as India (Hemmer, 1987).
The Sumatran tiger is believed alienated when sea levels rose at 6,000 to 12,000 years ago. Recent genetic testing has revealed the genetic markers are unique, indicating that this subspecies has different characteristics with other tigers subspisies and very likely develop into separate species, if managed sustainably.
Keep in mind, there are nine subspecies of tiger that three of them have been declared extinct. Ninth subspisies tiger are:
Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) located in Malaysia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal.
South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) China.
Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Amur, Ussuri, tiger East China Sea, or Manchurian tiger. There are in China, North Korea, and Central Asia in Russia.
Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) are found only in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) is located in peninsula Malaysia.
Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) have become extinct around the year 1950. Caspian tigers there are in Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia, Turkey, and Russia.
Javan tigers (Panthera tigris sondaica) have become extinct around the year 1972. Javan tigers are on the island of Java, Indonesia.
Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) that became extinct around the year 1937. Bali tigers are on the island of Bali, Indonesia.
Characteristics and Habitat
Sumatran tigers are the smallest tiger subspecies. The Sumatran tiger has the darkest color among all the other tiger subspecies, the black pattern width and the distance is sometimes attached tightly.
Sumatran tiger males have an average length of 92 inches from head to tail, weighing 300 pounds. Females average 78 inches in length and weighs 200 pounds. Sumatran tiger stripes are thinner than other tiger subspecies. This subspecies also had more beard and mane than other subspecies, mainly male tiger.
Its small size makes it easier to explore the jungle. There is a membrane in between the fingers that make them able to swim fast. Tigers are known to drive hoofed prey into the water, especially if the prey animal is a slow swimmer. Its fur changes color to dark green when giving birth.
Sumatran tigers are only found on the island of Sumatra. This rare cat could live anywhere, from lowland forests to mountain forest, and lived in many places are not protected.
Sumatran tiger food depends where he lives and how abundant prey. Sumatran tigers are solitary animals that hunt at night. This cat patiently stalking their prey before attacking from behind or the side. They eat anything that can be captured, generally boar and deer, and sometimes poultry, fish, and orangutans. According to local residents Sumatran tigers also like to eat durian.
Sumatran tigers are also able to swim and climb trees when hunting prey. Sumatran tiger poaching of forest area is not known precisely, but it is estimated that 4-5 requires an adult Sumatran tigers roam the region of 100 kilometers.
Until now only an estimated 400-500 remaining Sumatran tiger tail (Panthera tigris sumatrae) which still survive in the wild. In addition there is at least 250 Sumatran tiger tails that are kept in zoos worldwide.
Habitat destruction is the greatest threat to the Sumatran tiger population at this time. Logging continues even in national parks should be protected. Recorded 66 tigers were killed between 1998 and 2000.
In an effort to rescue tigers from extinction, Taman Safari Indonesia is appointed by the 20 zoos in the world as the Sumatran Tiger Breeding Center, studbook keeper and sperm storage (Genome Bank Rescue) for Sumatran tigers.
Kingdom: Animalia; Phylum: Chordata; Class: mammals; Order: Carnivora; Family: Felidae; Genus: Panthera; Species: Panthera tigris; Upaspesies: Panthera tigris sumatrae. Trinomial name: Panthera tigris sumatrae (Pocock, 1929).